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《国防拨款法》:背景与国会议题选择【精选推荐】

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《国防拨款法》:背景与国会议题选择【精选推荐】

 

 Contents Introduction

 ..................................................................................................................................... 1 Legislative Activity

 .......................................................................................................................... 1 Selected Actions

 ........................................................................................................................ 1 Bill Overview

 ............................................................................................................................ 4 Background

 ..................................................................................................................................... 7 Strategic Context

 ...................................................................................................................... 7 Budgetary Context

 .................................................................................................................... 8 FY2021 Defense Budget Request

 .......................................................................................... 10 Selected Policy Matters

 ................................................................................................................. 12 COVID-19

 ............................................................................................................................... 12 Overseas Contingency Operations (OCO)

 ............................................................................... 14 Border Wall and Related Matters

 ............................................................................................ 15 Border Barrier Construction

 .............................................................................................. 15 Counter-Narcotics Support

 ................................................................................................ 17 Transfer Authorities

 .......................................................................................................... 18 Confederate Names

 ................................................................................................................. 19 Authorizations for the Use of Military Force (AUMFs)

 .......................................................... 20 Afghanistan Security Forces Fund (ASFF)

 ............................................................................. 21 Iran

 .......................................................................................................................................... 21 Military Personnel

 ................................................................................................................... 22 End-Strength

 ..................................................................................................................... 22 Pay Raise

 ........................................................................................................................... 24 Childcare Program

 ............................................................................................................ 24 Selected Acquisition Matters

 ......................................................................................................... 25 Software and Digital Technology Pilot Programs .................................................................... 25 Mid-Tier Acquisition and Rapid Prototyping Programs

 ......................................................... 26 Strategic Nuclear Forces

 ......................................................................................................... 27 Long-Range, Precision Strike Weapons

 ................................................................................. 29 Missile Defense Programs

 ...................................................................................................... 31 Military Space Programs

 ........................................................................................................ 33 Ground Combat Systems

 ........................................................................................................ 35 Navy Shipbuilding

 .................................................................................................................. 37 Military Aircraft Programs

 ...................................................................................................... 40 Outlook

 .......................................................................................................................................... 42 Figures Figure 1. Days between Start of Fiscal Year and Enactment of Annual Defense Appropriations Act, FY1977-FY2021

 ......................................................................................... 4 Figure 2. Outlays by Budget Enforcement Category and Revenues, FY2001-FY2030

  (Projected)

 ...................................................................................................................................................... 9 Figure 3. Portion of FY2021 President’s National Defense Budget Request within the Scope of the Defense Appropriations Act

 ................................................................................... 11 Figure 4. Department of Defense Budget Authority, FY1948-FY2025 (Projected)

 ...................... 12

 Tables Table 1. FY2021 Defense Appropriations Act: Selected Dates and Actions

 ................................... 3 Table 2. FY2021 Defense Appropriations Act Funding Summary

 .................................................. 5 Table 3. Requested and Enacted Amounts in Annual Defense Appropriations Acts, FY2012-FY2021 .......................................................................................................................... 6 Table 4. General and Special Transfer Authority Limits in the DOD Appropriations Act, 2021: Legislative Comparison

 ................................................................................................... 18 Table 5. Summary of Military Personnel End-Strength, FY2021

 ................................................. 23 Table 6. Selected Long-Range, Nuclear-Armed Weapons Systems

 .............................................. 28 Table 7. Selected Long-Range Strike Weapons Systems

 .............................................................. 30 Table 8. Selected Missile Defense Programs

 ................................................................................ 32 Table 9. Selected Military Space Programs

 .................................................................................. 34 Table 10. Selected Ground Combat Systems

 ................................................................................ 35 Table 11. Selected Shipbuilding Programs .................................................................................... 38 Table 12. Selected Military Aircraft Programs .............................................................................. 41

  Table A-1. Hearings of the House Appropriations Committee Defense Subcommittee (HAC-D), 2020

 .......................................................................................................................... 44 Table A-2. Hearings of the Senate Appropriations Committee Defense Subcommittee (SAC-D), 2020

 .......................................................................................................................... 44

  Table B-1. Budget Data Sources for Appropriations Tables

 ......................................................... 45

  Appendixes Appendix A. Hearings of the House and Senate Appropriations Committees, Defense Subcommittees, 2020 ................................................................................................................. 44 Appendix B. Budget Data Sources for Appropriations Tables

 ...................................................... 45

  Contacts Author Information

 ....................................................................................................................... 52

  Introduction The annual Department of Defense Appropriations Act primarily provides funding for most activities of the Department of Defense (DOD), including the Departments of the Army, Navy (including Marine Corps), and Air Force (including Space Force); Office of the Secretary of Defense; and Defense Agencies. The legislation also appropriates funding for certain intelligence activities, including the Intelligence Community Management Account (for staffing expenses related to the National and Military Intelligence Programs) and the Central Intelligence Agency Retirement and Disability System Fund (a mandatory account that provides payments of benefits). The act does not provide funding for DOD-related military construction and family housing programs, Army Corps of Engineers (Civil Works) programs, or the TRICARE for Life program of medical insurance for military retirees. Funding for military construction and family housing programs is provided in the Military Construction and Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies Act. Funding for Army Corps of Engineers (Civil Works) programs is provided in the Energy and Water Development and Related Agencies Appropriations Act. Funding for TRICARE for Life is appropriated automatically each year (10 U.S.C. §§1111-1117). This report provides an overview of the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2021, and serves as a reference to other CRS products that provide additional information, context, and analysis relevant to certain aspects of the legislation. The following section provides an overview of congressional action on the legislation. The subsequent section summarizes the budgetary and strategic context within which Congress debated the President Trump’s FY2021 budget request. Other sections describe the legislation’s treatment of certain policy issues and major components of the request, including selected weapons acquisition programs.

 Legislative Activity Selected Actions On February 10, 2020, President Donald J. Trump submitted an FY2021 budget request that included $753.5 billion for national defense-related activities, including discretionary and mandatory programs....

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